American James Allison, Japan’s Tasuku Honjo Win 2018 Nobel Prize in Medicine

01 October, 2018, 18:45 | Author: Cecil Davis
  • Former Scripps Research postdoc wins Nobel Prize in medicine

Allison, professor at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in the United States, worked on a protein known as CTLA-4 and realised during his work that if this could be blocked, a brake would be released, unleashing immune cells to attack tumours. Their research has led to the development of drugs that release that Human immune system against the cancer cells. Allison spent 17 years convincing others that this approach could work, leading to approval in 2011 of the drug Yervoy, which showed near-miraculous results for a fraction of patients with a lethal form of skin cancer.

In 1992, Japanese scientist, Tasuku Honjo from Kyoto University, separately discovered another protein on immune cells called PD-1 and revealed that it also operates as a brake, but with a different mechanism of action to CTLA-4.

The prize recognizes Allison's basic science discoveries on the biology of T cells, the adaptive immune system's soldiers, and his invention of immune checkpoint blockade to treat cancer. In 2013, Science magazine named cancer immunotherapy its Breakthrough of the Year, citing Allison's work as crucial to immunotherapy's rapid advancement, and The Economist honoured him with its Innovations Award in Bioscience.

In the early 1990s, Allison had been studying a protein called CTLA-4, which sits in the outer layer - the membrane - of an active T-cell and behaves like an off-switch.

His 1994 experiment was spectacularly successful, with mice with cancer cured by treatment with the antibodies that inhibit the brake and unlock antitumor T-cell activity.

Today, immunotherapies based on Allison and Honjo's research work especially well for fighting advanced and aggressive tumors.

Allison, 70, is now chair of the department of immunology at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston.

Sentencing for Bill Cosby begins
Green, Cosby's attorney, downplayed the outburst on Monday when asking the judge to sentence Cosby to house arrest. "Mr. Steele quoted Constand in her statement as saying that Cosby took "my lovely , healthy, young spirit and crushed it".

Prof Honjo said the award came "completely out of the blue" and "of course, I was very happy, delighted at the same time, but shocked". Allison, initially driven only by curiosity about immune cells, had a insane thought: Maybe CTLA-4 can be exploited to fight cancer. Carter announced in 2016 that he no longer needed treatment. Their approach, known as immune checkpoint theory, had "revolutionized cancer treatment and has fundamentally changed the way we view how cancer can be managed", the committee said.

Allison started his career at MD Anderson in 1977, arriving as one of the first employees of a new basic science research center located in Smithville, Texas.

Awards in physics, chemistry, peace and economics will follow.

The discovery made by the two laureates "constitutes a landmark in our fight against cancer", the committee tweeted shortly after the announcement.

The literature prize will not be given this year because of a sexual misconduct scandal at the body that decides the award.

Medicine is the first of the Nobel Prizes awarded each year.


  • Tesla shares jump after Elon Musk settles with SEC

    Tesla shares jump after Elon Musk settles with SEC

    Tesla in recent years has become one of the most valuable American auto maker, with its stock worth more than $50 billion. The settlement, reached on Saturday, comes after Musk initially rejected the charges, claiming they were "unjustified" .
    Concern grows for missing boy who vanished in N.C. woods

    Concern grows for missing boy who vanished in N.C. woods

    Around 330 law enforcement officer from local police to the Federal Bureau of Investigation have been searching the park . Investigators are still seeking to understand if criminality was involved or if Maddox's disappearance was an accident.
    Passenger jet overshoots runway, crashes into sea

    Passenger jet overshoots runway, crashes into sea

    A passenger plane heading to Papua New Guinea is believed to have overshot its runway, landing in a lagoon in Micronesia. Witness Bill Davis told Yahoo7 News that all the passengers were evacuated quickly, a few of whom had minor injuries.
  • 'Captain America' Reed relishes Ryder Cup villain's role

    'Captain America' Reed relishes Ryder Cup villain's role

    I think it makes no difference to us at all. "It would always be great playing Poults", Reed said, not backing down at all. He failed to win a match in his most recent Ryder Cup , going 0-3-1 at Medinah when Europe rallied to win on the last day.
    Chair of Australian public broadcaster quits in meddling row

    Chair of Australian public broadcaster quits in meddling row

    On ABC's 7.30 program, Mr Milne described the week's events as a "firestorm" and said he "wanted to provide a release valve". Acting center-left opposition leader Tanya Plibersek, demanded an fully independent investigation into what happened.
    Liverpool take ideal  record to Chelsea for biggest test

    Liverpool take ideal record to Chelsea for biggest test

    Chelsea are now in third place, two points behind Liverpool after an unbeaten start to the season. The atmosphere is fantastic, from the Chelsea fans also who were awesome.
  • 384 killed, 540 injured in Indonesia earthquake-tsunami

    384 killed, 540 injured in Indonesia earthquake-tsunami

    On Saturday, authorities were still having difficulties coordinating rescue efforts. "Don't even think to find the inmates". About 17,000 people had been evacuated, the government disaster agency said and that number was expected to soar.
    Christine Blasey Ford says she’s

    Christine Blasey Ford says she’s "100%" certain Kavanaugh was her attacker

    President Donald Trump shakes hands with Brett Kavanaugh in the White House in July 2018. "I intend no ill will toward Dr. Republican Senators Susan Collins of Maine, Jeff Flake of Arizona and Bob Corker of Tennessee are also on the fence.
    Former Barcelona star Luis Garcia believes Real Madrid are fine without Ronaldo

    Former Barcelona star Luis Garcia believes Real Madrid are fine without Ronaldo

    But Roma fell 3-0 to holders Real Madrid in Spain with Napoli playing out a goalless draw at Red Star Belgrade. The following game for Juventus is on October 23rd at Old Trafford, where Ronaldo played for six years.
  • Daniel Sturridge stuns Chelsea with a goal of the season candidate

    Daniel Sturridge stuns Chelsea with a goal of the season candidate

    Sturridge too scored in that game , and Hazard added to his praise for his rival speaking to the BBC . Liverpool scored a last-gasp goal on Saturday to earn a point away at Chelsea in the Premier League.
    Woods winning 'incredibly special for golf', says Poulter

    Woods winning 'incredibly special for golf', says Poulter

    His regained form has drawn more viewers this year, but whether he'll help thwart the sport's decline remains to be seen. He said the last hole was a "blur", and it remains the last Ryder Cup that both Molinari and Woods played.
    Tiger chases win No. 80 at Tour Championship

    Tiger chases win No. 80 at Tour Championship

    Woods is now in prime position to capture his first PGA Tour win since the 2013 WGC-Bridgestone Invitational. Marc Leishman carded a 68 and Jason Day a 69, which included two double bogeys, and both sit at even par.


Krishna Raj Kapoor funeral
The couple have five children together - Randhir Kapoor, Ritu Kapoor Nanda, Rishi Kapoor , Rima Kapoor Jain and Rajiv Kapoor. She further added, "In our long conversations, Raj-ji often spoke about Krishna-ji and all she had brought into his life".

Passengers safe after plane ditches into Pacific lagoon
A South Pacific airline announced Monday that a passenger died when a plane crashed into a Pacific lagoon in Micronesia last week. All 35 passengers and 12 crew members were saved, though the water levels had reached waist-height before help arrived.

American Bar Association Said FBI Investigation Should Come Before A Kavanaugh Vote
Dr Ford was lauded for her testimony and her bravery by various Democrats and by a large number of supporters around the world. Other Republican senators followed Graham's lead in supporting Kavanaugh.

US, Canada Reach NAFTA Deal
Trudeau tweeted he reached out to the chief executives leading Canada's Big Five banks to "touch base on NAFTA negotiations". The Canadian dollar surged to its highest since May against the USA dollar, gaining around 0.5 percent from Friday's close.

Whitewash! Europe sweep foursomes to stun United States and lead 5-3
For the second straight day, Finau was both kept out of the foursomes (alternate shot) play in the afternoon. One of those comebacks happened in 1999 at Brookline in Boston - the only 10-6 comeback for the Americans.

Trump takes aim at China, Iran at UN Security Council
Mr Trump reimposed the sanctions after quitting the Iran accord in May, and called on United States allies to comply. Saudi Energy Minister Khalid al-Falih told reporters in Algiers that he does not influence prices.

Adultery no longer a crime in India
In 1985, the then chief justice had upheld the validity of the adultery law. "A husband is not the master of his wife". Women having affairs could not be prosecuted, but they also couldn't file a complaint against cheating husbands.

Russian Federation to provide Syria with new S-300 air defense missiles
He insisted the new security measures "are not directed against third countries, but towards defending our own military". In the phone call, Netanyahu also said he told Putin that Israel would continue to protect its security and interests.

Liverpool 1 Chelsea 2: Magical Hazard condemns Reds to first defeat
Hazard told Sky Sports , adding to Chelsea TV that the goal was up there as one of his best ever. "I am happy. Hazard came on as a substitute 10 minutes into the second half, replacing the Brazilian Willian.

Google celebrates 20 years of search
Today, as part of its efforts to improve search, the search giant is revamping Feed and is renaming it to Discover . Google has done some changes to update its Search Engine . "Now, there are hundreds of billions of pages".